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Is Semenax A Product For Improving Semen Volume And Sexual Performance?

Our team of experts delved deep into Semenax, meticulously examining its distinctive amalgamation of ingredients to ascertain its compatibility with your requirements.
Shahrokh Shariat, MD
Senior Editor & Writer

Prof. Shariat has published over 1400 scientific papers in peer-reviewed journals. In 2014 he received the Matula Award from the European Society of Urology (EAU), and in 2017 the Gold Cystoscope Award from the American Society of Urology, probably the most important urologist award worldwide.

In the course of aging, men naturally undergo a decline in sexual vitality. This decline, whether reflected in a waning libido, weakened erectile prowess, or reduced semen volume and orgasm intensity, is a facet of life that most men grapple with.1 It’s a universal experience, and there’s no need for shame in acknowledging it. Addressing these symptoms has become a common quest, with numerous nutritional supplements stepping into the spotlight. One such contender is Semenax, a unique blend of plant-derived compounds, vitamins, essential minerals, and amino acids meticulously crafted by Leading Edge Health. Our investigation delves into Semenax’s constituent elements and the experiences shared by its users, shedding light on the potential it holds for men seeking solutions.

Our Verdict

Editor’s Rating

In the realm of male vitality supplements, Semenax stands tall, eclipsing its counterparts with a rich blend of ingredients. Yet, its benefits remain an enigma, an unpredictable tapestry of possibilities. While some ingredients boast research-backed efficacy, the doses often pale against scientific standards, leaving questions lingering. A modest, company-backed study unveiled promising outcomes, a rarity among similar products. However, the study’s scale leaves room for skepticism.

Certain men may revel in Semenax’s promise, experiencing heightened ejaculate volume and intensified orgasms. For those on the journey of fatherhood, seeking enhanced semen parameters, alternative avenues might prove wiser. Our comprehensive guide navigates the labyrinth of pills for increasing volume and enhancing male fertility, offering tailored alternatives to suit your aspirations.

Exclusive Deal: Unleash 35% savings with promo code BODYFREEDOM35


  • Personalized Wellness: Diverse ingredients for tailored intimacy
  • Clinically Proven: Guaranteed safety and satisfaction.
  • Risk-Free Purchase: 67-day money-back assurance.
  • Exclusive Savings: Up to 45% off with code BODYFREEDOM45.
  • Potent Pleasure: Max potency formula with Maca.
  • Pure & Discreet: 100% natural, discreet packaging.


  • Underdosed Ingredients: Vital components fall below effective levels seen in studies.
  • Self-Funded Trial: Potential bias due to self-funding, impacting objectivity.
  • Dietary Restrictions: Not vegan/vegetarian-friendly.
  • Health Concerns: Unsuitable for men with heart issues, raising safety questions.

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Why you should trust our expertise

For two decades, Body Freedom Collaborative Research empowered thousands, guiding them to informed health choices. In scrutinizing Semenax, we delved deep, dissecting scholarly works on its ingredients and exploring male sexual health intricacies. Our dedicated team pored over 220 articles, investing 120+ hours contrasting this supplement’s prowess against rivals.

Each health piece, including this review, undergoes rigorous scrutiny. Our Medical Review Board meticulously ensures accuracy. Rest assured, we persistently track Semenax and men’s health, guaranteeing up-to-the-minute content.

Senior Editor’s Note:

In our fervent quest for precise health insights, Body Freedom Research emerges as a guiding light for the health-conscious community. This review, a testament to our unwavering commitment, embodies exhaustive research and expert scrutiny. Our steadfast dedication ensures readers not only acquire information but also find steadfast guidance in their health odyssey.

How Semenax was evaluated by our experts


Rating: 7 / 10

Delving into numerous studies probing the sexual advantages of these elements, we meticulously compared dosages with the effective levels in research papers. Semenax often employs insufficient doses when considered individually. However, few studies examine their ingredients collectively. This challenge isn’t specific to this product alone; creators of male enhancement supplements believe smaller doses of a variety of elements could synergize effectively. While this idea is attractive, its validity remains uncertain due to limited supplement trials.

Let’s swiftly contrast Semenax’s generously measured components with those found in its competitors’ formulations:

 SemenaxPerformer 8Max PerformerVigRX Plus
Maca400mg (root)30mg (extract)1,000mgN/A
Epimedium saggitatum150mg (leaf)1,000mg (leaf)1,000mg (leaf)30mg (extract)
Pine bark extract300mg300mgN/AN/A
Tribulus terrestris50mgN/AN/A150mg

In a pioneering move, Leading Edge Health, the parent company, conducted rigorous double-blind, placebo-controlled trials for its products, positioning Semenax far ahead of its competitors.

Semenax confidently claims that the study irrefutably showcased its effectiveness. In the scientific realm, where absolute certainty is a rare gem, recognizing these unquestionably positive results becomes essential. What distinguishes Leading Edge Health is its exceptional willingness to subject its formulations to such thorough scrutiny, a rarity in this field. However, a lingering question remains: the study was financed directly by Leading Edge Health, raising concerns about potential bias. The challenge lies in determining how many research projects a company might fund and discard before obtaining favorable results.

Certain competitors navigate this issue by focusing on a select few “hero” ingredients, employing substantial doses. Consider Performer 8, a supplement highly regarded for its significant inclusion of Ginseng, epimedium leaf, and ashwagandha. A notable disparity arises when comparing Semenax’s 150mg epimedium quantity to Performer 8’s impressive 1,000mg. This strategic approach provides an alternative perspective, empowering consumers to make well-informed choices.


Rating: 7 / 10

Exploring the realm of male enhancement, Semenax entices with its minimal ingredients, claiming to curb side effects. But for many, it’s far from effortless. The touted “no recorded side effects” claim, backed by a flawed study, crumbles upon scrutiny. Contrary to the assertion, the study revealed 11 adverse effects in the Semenax cohort and four participants in the placebo group.

Adverse effects linked to this product include:

Analyzing specific ingredients like Tribulus Terrestris and epimedium leaf reveals mild risks of gastrointestinal reactions and headaches. For males dealing with heart problems, it becomes a risky choice. Especially, men with heart conditions face increased dangers due to the supplement’s supposed ability to boost blood flow. While this might lower blood pressure, it poses threats to those on medications like warfarin or dealing with cardiovascular problems.

In the male enhancement supplement arena, it doesn’t offer a significantly safer profile. Most supplements in this category focus on improving erectile performance, often relying on enhanced blood flow. Consequently, potential adverse effects remain a pressing concern. Given these risks, consulting a physician before adding Semenax or any new supplement to one’s routine is crucial.


Rating: 7 / 10

When dissecting the expense of male enhancement supplements, it’s not just about the price tag. We scrutinize shipping fees, explore bulk options, and assess guarantees and return procedures. While most enhancement brands opt for bulk savings over subscriptions, Semenax follows suit.

It’s pricing typically lands in the middle ground. A glance at the one-month supply costs of leading enhancement pills and their monthly expenses for bulk purchases (ranging from 6 to 12 months) unveils the bigger picture: a market intricately woven with financial nuances and choices.

 Monthly supply perCost per month with maximum bulk discount appliedMoney-back guarantee
Semenax$59.99$33.3367 days
Performer 8$64.99$39Lifetime
Extenze$49.95$41.6667 days
VigRX Plus$69.65$49.1667 days
Max Performer$69$30100 days
Volume Pills$59.95$33.3367 days
Male Extra$59.99$30100 days

Exclusive Deal: Unleash 35% savings with promo code BODYFREEDOM35

In evaluating Semenax, one notices its competitive pricing a one-month supply aligns with industry norms, but a year’s worth stands out as exceptionally affordable. For those aiming for the utmost cost-effectiveness, Leading Edge Health provides exclusive coupon codes. Contemplating it? Utilize them thus:

  • 1-month supply: Just $52 with code BODYFREEDOM35. 
  • 3-month supply: Merely $132 using code BODYFREEDOM45. 
  • 6-month supply: Tagged at $264 with code BODYFREEDOM45. 
  • 12-month supply: An astounding $384 with code BODYFREEDOM60.

These discounts slash the yearly expense to a mere $32, enhancing its allure against its counterparts. Striking the right balance between savings and the quality of ingredients in pricier alternatives is key. However, if budget constraints influence your choice, Semenax emerges as a pragmatic selection.


Rating: 7 / 10

Securing ease in your supplement routine involves strategic choices. It commences with seamless access to supplements, facilitated by user-friendly website interfaces and efficient ordering processes. Semenax, in this context, aligns with the standards set by various male enhancement products in terms of website usability. However, specifics about ingredient quantities are less readily available on their site compared to some competitors.

Efficient shipping logistics serve as another cornerstone of convenience, an area where it shines. Typically, our orders reached our doorsteps within a week of purchase, a commendable feat for a complimentary shipping service, mirroring industry norms.

Considering the ease of consumption, we assess dosing schedules and pill sizes. Semenax prescribes four pills per dose, posing a challenge for individuals struggling with swallowing pills. Yet, a silver lining exists; this routine demands only once-daily adherence.

A notable drawback in its convenience pertains to its absence of a subscription model. Although this trait isn’t unique to Semenax, it remains a concern. Subscriptions not only promise potential savings but also guarantee uninterrupted usage, sparing users the anxiety of forgetting to reorder and enduring days without their supplement.

What is Semenax?

In the realm of male enhancement, Semenax emerges as a pioneering force, prioritizing amplified semen volume while enhancing erectile performance and intensifying orgasms. Positioned within the niche of volume pills, it is a creation of Leading Edge Health, a renowned manufacturer crafting a range of products tailored to diverse men’s sexual health needs.

It addresses the natural decline in semen volume that many men experience due to nutritional deficiencies. Specifically targeting prevalent zinc deficiency, Semenax incorporates ingredients aimed at bridging these gaps. However, individuals leading healthy lifestyles with balanced nutrition and regular exercise might witness limited transformative effects.2

For those primarily concerned with erectile performance, It doesn’t rival prescription PDE-5 inhibitors like Viagra or Cialis. Instead, It distinguishes itself by significantly enhancing ejaculate volume, a vital aspect underscored by the company’s rigorous small-scale clinical study.

What sets Semenax apart is its comprehensive ingredient list and extensive research endeavors. Despite its impressive length, its efficacy it isn’t substantially elevated due to the relatively moderate doses of these ingredients. Here’s a detailed exploration of Semenax’s ingredient composition and dosages, offering a deeper insight into this groundbreaking approach to male sexual enhancement.

Semenax ingredients

  • Supplement Facts

  • 30 servings per container
  • Serving Size4 Capsules
  • Amount per serving
  • Calories0
  • % Daily Value*
  • Vitamin E (as dl-tocopherol acetate)60 IU200%
  • Zinc Aspartate (20% elemental Zinc)30 mg40%
  • Butea Superba (root)500 mg
  • L-carnitine500 mg
  • Maca (root)400 mg
  • Pine Bark Extract300 mg
  • L-arginine HCL250 mg
  • L-Lysine250 mg
  • Catuaba (bark)200 mg
  • Epimedium Sagittatum (leaf)150 mg
  • Muira Puama (bark)100 mg
  • Hawthorne (berry)50 mg
  • Cranberry Extract (seed)50 mg
  • Tribulus Terrestris (vine)50 mg
  • Avena Sativa extract (seed)50 mg
  • Sarsaparilla (root)50 mg
  • Swedish Flower (pollen)50 mg
  • Pumpkin (seed)30 mg

Familiar ingredients compose the capsule and fortify the formula. Notably, gelatin’s inclusion renders it unsuited for vegans and vegetarians, sparking dietary considerations.

Who is Semenax suitable for?

Boost your libido and testosterone levels with Semenax, a supplement tailored for individuals producing under 3ml of semen. However, it’s not a panacea. Seek guidance from a healthcare expert, undergo a testosterone test, and craft a personalized approach. It could be a vital component of your tailored strategy.

Does Semenax work?

Amidst the nebulous expanse of men’s health products, Semenax stands as a tantalizing prospect. While whispers of its potential efficacy abound, definitive proof remains a specter on the horizon. Our exploration of its elemental composition reveals a promised beacon for men navigating the labyrinth of diminished testosterone, a salve for those entangled in the web of circulatory constraints or vitamin E deficiencies. However, the symphony conducted by these ingredients lacks the empirical harmony that validates its claims, leaving its true efficacy shrouded in uncertainty.

In the quest for clarity, the company extends a reassuring gesture: a 67-day refuge for those whose aspirations find no fulfillment. As the journey continues, the curtain of uncertainty hangs, waiting to be lifted by the rigorous hands of research and substantiated claims.

Clinical trials exploring Semenax benefits

In a groundbreaking clinical study sponsored by Leading Edge Health, researchers delved deep into the supplement’s efficacy through a rigorous double-blind, placebo-controlled investigation. The findings, unveiled after two months of intensive scrutiny, revealed a remarkable surge in ejaculate volume, igniting hope for those seeking enhanced virility.

Key Findings Unveiled: A Glimpse into Semenax’s Impact

Ejaculate Volume Surges:

Witnessing an astonishing 19.7% surge in ejaculate volume, participants experienced a tangible transformation. Contrastingly, the placebo group faced a disheartening dip, underscoring Semenax’s potency.

Sperm Count Soars:

Mirroring this triumph, Semenax propelled sperm count skyward by an impressive 11.7%, standing tall against the placebo group’s unfortunate decline. A testament to it’s potential to reshape male fertility.

Shape of Vigor:

Sperm morphology, a pivotal gauge of sperm health, displayed a subtle yet promising enhancement among Semenax takers. In contrast, the placebo recipients witnessed a marginal setback, though statistically deemed insignificant.

Navigating the Path:

Non-progressive motility, signifying sperm straying from their destined course, rose within the Semenax enclave. A testament to the supplement’s impact, albeit in a challenging area.

A Race to the Egg:

In the realm of progressive motility, Semenax faced a setback, hinting at a detour from the direct path to fertilization. A captivating twist in this virility saga.

Erectile Function Soars:

The International Index of Erectile Function, a crucial marker, exhibited a boost in both the supplemental and placebo groups. Intriguingly, this rise pointed to a broader narrative, raising questions about the supplement’s influence on male performance.

Does Semenax have a legitimate reputation?

In the landscape of male enhancement solutions, it emerges as a prominent choice, championed by Leading Edge Health, the organization that owns it. Seamless communication channels empower customers, offering swift resolutions to inquiries, product returns, or order discrepancies. Feeling unsatisfied? Leading Edge extends a 67-day satisfaction guarantee, allowing discerning men ample time to witness the transformative effects, even though it pales slightly in comparison to competitors such as Performer 8’s lifetime assurance or Ulstraloads 100-day commitment.

Is it safe to use Semenax?

In clinical trials, the ingredients emerged as generally safe for the majority of men under proper usage. However, individuals dealing with blood pressure, heart issues, or diabetes must consult their doctors before integrating any supplement into their routine for assured safety.

Semenax features horny goat weed, a component possibly causing breathing complications and elevating bleeding and bruising risks, particularly for those on blood thinners.

If considering usage is on your horizon, open dialogue with your healthcare provider is paramount. Transparency when incorporating any new supplement into your regimen ensures your well-being.

How does Semenax work?

In the pursuit of enhancing Erectile performance, fertility, ejaculate volume, and orgasm intensity. Semenax combines potent botanical ingredients, zinc, and vitamin E. Studies have spotlighted these components, probing their efficacy in men’s sexual health. However, it’s crucial to note that effective doses in these studies often surpass Semenax quantities.

Vitamin EWhile a study involving geese hinted at vitamin E’s potential in improving sperm concentration and ejaculate volume,3 a human study failed to show significant differences in in vitro fertilization outcomes. The study used a vitamin E supplement size twice that of Semenax’s serving, indicating a limited impact.4
Zinc AspartateZinc, pivotal for robust sperm health due to its connection with testosterone levels,5 forms a cornerstone in Semenax. Yet, if you’re already maintaining normal testosterone levels or using a zinc-rich multivitamin, it’s effects might not be discernible.
L-CarnitineStudies show mixed results. While carnitine exposure enhanced mouse semen motility, its impact on chromatin quality, vital regarding male fertility,6 remains inconclusive. Some studies explore carnitine as part of an antioxidant complex, relevance to Semenax’s efficacy is indirect.7
Maca RootStudies suggest maca’s role in enhancing men’s sexual health but used doses significantly higher8 than Semenax’s 400mg. This distinction is vital in assessing its potential contribution.
L-Arginine HCl and Pine Bark ExtractSemenax’s pine bark extract surpasses effective quantities found in studies, showing improvements in erectile dysfunction scores.9 L-Arginine, studied alongside pine bark, demonstrated consistent improvements in patients’ IIEF scores over a placebo.10 The exact proportions in Semenax, however, remain undisclosed.
L-LysineResearch on lysine’s impact on semen parameters is limited, though it’s relevant to healthy sperm according to specific studies.11
Catuaba BarkWhile Catuaba Bark’s antioxidant properties hint at potential benefits for male semen quality,12 research remains limited, and potential reproductive harm has been noted in female rats.13
Epimedium Sagittatum LeafStudies reveal the potential of epimedium sagittatum, commonly known as horny goat weed or barrenwort. Semenax employs the leaf form, with lower icariin content. Studies highlight the efficacy of icariin,14 indicating a crucial dosage difference.
Urologist Dr. Jessica Yih from The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center asserts that certain studied ingredients, though backed by limited evidence, might lack potency due to low dosages. Yet, synergy with other higher-quantity components could yield results.

Pricing and Discounts

When it comes to supplements of this nature, opting for larger quantities in bulk proves to be the wiser choice. The company generously extends bulk purchase savings, although they do not offer a subscription service for additional savings and convenience.

The company presents its products with retail price tags, yet it’s worth noting that the company consistently runs ongoing promotions that effectively reduce these prices. In our extensive experience, these promotions are consistently active and effectively position the cost of the eproduct at a competitive level amidst its peers. Notably, Leading Edge Health has graciously furnished us with exclusive coupon codes to offer our readers, providing them with a distinct advantage in terms of savings, surpassing the typical promotions. Here’s a breakdown of how these discounts work:

Supply DurationOriginal PriceDiscount CodeDiscounted PricePercentage Savings
One-Month Supply$80BODYFREEDOM35$5235%
Three-Month Supply$240BODYFREEDOM45$13245%
Six-Month Supply$480BODYFREEDOM45$26445%
Twelve-Month Supply$960BODYFREEDOM60$38460%

In our rigorous testing, we found that merely entering these codes on the official website will not activate the discounts. To secure these added benefits, you must actively click through the links we’ve thoughtfully provided and proceed with your purchase.

Comparatively, competitors like Male Extra and Max Performer do offer similar products at more budget-friendly rates, even when considering our exclusive codes. The choice of which supplement holds the most promise for addressing your specific bedroom concerns hinges on the precise essence of your concerns and the hidden elements influencing them.

Exclusive Insight

Beware of counterfeit products infiltrating popular outlets like Amazon. Numerous reputable brands, including Semenax, have fallen victim to this scheme, leading to compromised quality and, alarmingly, the inclusion of potentially harmful substances. Safeguard your health by making purchases exclusively from the official website, steering clear of these deceptive replicas. Your well-being deserves authenticity.

Semenax Alternatives

Explore your options before nutritional supplements, prescriptions, or lifestyle changes like exercising and an improved diet could align with your goals. We assess direct competitors and delve deeper into our guides if any resonate.

Other nutritional supplements

At its essence, Semenax is a male enhancement supplement dedicated to improving sexual health. To aid your decision-making, here is a direct look at some similar alternatives:

Male Enhancement PillsDiving into the world of male enhancement, these pills feature a diverse array of ingredients meticulously curated to enhance blood circulation to the penile region. This category also encompasses volume pills and testosterone boosters, aiming to amplify virility. For an in-depth analysis, consult our male enhancement pills guide.
Volume PillsSemenax proudly falls under this category, prioritizing ingredients tailored to augment semen quantity and quality. With a focus on enhancing male fertility, our Volume Pills guide provides insightful comparisons with male fertility supplements, aiding you in informed decision-making.
Testosterone BoostersA crucial factor in intimate relationships, low testosterone levels can manifest as challenges such as erectile dysfunction, diminished libido, and infertility. However, these boosters might offer limited benefits should your testosterone levels be within the normal range. Delve into our guide to Testosterone Boosters for a detailed exploration.
Fertility SupplementsUnlike their assertive counterparts, fertility supplements adopt a more refined approach, targeting a broader demographic. While their marketing strategies differ, their ingredient profiles often overlap with volume pills and testosterone boosters, albeit in more potent concentrations and comparable pricing structures.

Prescription medication

When it comes to enhancing erectile performance, many turn to products like Semenax. But here’s the truth: for effective results, medications such as Viagra or Cialis and their prescribed treatments affordable generic versions are your best bet. These options, although seemingly drastic, are backed by rigorous scientific research, unlike many ingredients in male enhancement supplements.

A Deeper Look at Prescription ED Medications

Our extensive research reveals the top choices in prescription ED medications and their accessible telemedicine providers. Generic tadalafil, marketed as Cialis, stands out as our preferred treatment due to its affordability and flexible dosing. Whether taken daily or as needed, it ensures readiness for intimate moments, lingering in your system for up to 36 hours. BlueChew offers convenient chewable tablets for those opting for on-demand usage, while Hims caters to men seeking a daily tadalafil regimen.

Affordable Alternatives: Generic Sildenafil

Another crowd favorite is generic sildenafil, akin to Viagra but far more cost-effective. While its effects last 6-8 hours and require as-needed intake, it remains a popular choice. BlueChew offers a complimentary trial for those new to prescription ED medications, while Hims provides a variety of dosage options for sildenafil enthusiasts.

Exploring New Avenues

Several alternatives function similarly to these drugs, classified as PDE-5 inhibitors.15 These newer options precisely target PDE-5 without affecting similar enzymes like PDE-6 or 11,16 minimizing rare side effects. If you encounter issues with sildenafil or tadalafil, these alternatives could be your solution.

How we reviewed this article:


It is a meticulously crafted natural supplement that redefines male sexual prowess. Harnessing the potency of herbal wonders, it amplifies semen volume, intensifies orgasms, and boosts fertility. Embrace Semenax for unparalleled sexual satisfaction and unshakable confidence.

– Body Freedom



Semenax, a male enhancement pill by Leading Edge Health, aims to boost semen volume and sexual performance. Despite a positive but small company-funded trial, its effectiveness is uncertain due to lower ingredient doses. It’s generally safe, but caution is needed for those with heart or blood pressure issues. No subscription model, but discounts for bulk purchases are available. Alternative options include prescription medications and other supplements.

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Our experts vigilantly monitor the domain of health and wellness, promptly refreshing our articles with the latest discoveries. Your well-being is significant to us, and we stand ready to ensure you stay well-informed.

January 22, 2022

January 22, 2022
October 17, 2023

Current Version

Written By
Shahrokh Shariat, MD
Edited By
Suzanne Briggs
Medically Reviewed By
Robin M Voigt-Zuwala, PhD
Copy Edited By
Daniel Johnson

October 17, 2023

At Body Freedom, we rely solely on top-tier sources, such as peer-reviewed studies, to bolster the veracity of our content. Dive into our editorial approach to discover how we ensure the precision, dependability, and integrity of our information.

  1. Chung, Eric. “Sexuality in Ageing Male: Review of Pathophysiology and Treatment Strategies for Various Male Sexual Dysfunctions.” Medical sciences (Basel, Switzerland) vol. 7,10 98. 20 Sep. 2019, doi:10.3390/medsci7100098 ↩︎
  2. Wessells, K Ryan, and Kenneth H Brown. “Estimating the global prevalence of zinc deficiency: results based on zinc availability in national food supplies and the prevalence of stunting.” PloS one vol. 7,11 (2012): e50568. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0050568 ↩︎
  3. Jerysz, Anna, and Ewa Lukaszewicz. “Effect of dietary selenium and vitamin E on ganders’ response to semen collection and ejaculate characteristics.” Biological trace element research vol. 153,1-3 (2013): 196-204. doi:10.1007/s12011-013-9652-5 ↩︎
  4. Sabetian, Soudabeh et al. “The Effect of Oral Vitamin E on Semen Parameters and IVF Outcome: A Double-Blinded Randomized Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial.” BioMed research international vol. 2021 5588275. 11 Oct. 2021, doi:10.1155/2021/5588275 ↩︎
  5. Prasad, A S et al. “Zinc status and serum testosterone levels of healthy adults.” Nutrition (Burbank, Los Angeles County, Calif.) vol. 12,5 (1996): 344-8. doi:10.1016/s0899-9007(96)80058-x ↩︎
  6. Sadeghi, Mohamad Reza et al. “Effects of sperm chromatin integrity on fertilization rate and embryo quality following intracytoplasmic sperm injection.” Avicenna journal of medical biotechnology vol. 1,3 (2009): 173-80. ↩︎
  7. Aliabadi, Elham et al. “Effects of L-carnitine and L-acetyl-carnitine on testicular sperm motility and chromatin quality.” Iranian journal of reproductive medicine vol. 10,2 (2012): 77-82. ↩︎
  8. Shin, Byung-Cheul et al. “Maca (L. meyenii) for improving sexual function: a systematic review.” BMC complementary and alternative medicine vol. 10 44. 6 Aug. 2010, doi:10.1186/1472-6882-10-44 ↩︎
  9. D̆uračková, Z., et al. “Lipid metabolism and erectile function improvement by pycnogenol®, extract from the bark of pinus pinaster in patients suffering from erectile dysfunction-a pilot study.” Nutrition Research 23.9 (2003): 1189-1198. ↩︎
  10. Ledda, Andrea, et al. “Investigation of a complex plant extract for mild to moderate erectile dysfunction in a randomized, double‐blind, placebo‐controlled, parallel‐arm study.” BJU international 106.7 (2010): 1030-1033. ↩︎
  11. Cheng, Yi-Min et al. “Lysine glutarylation in human sperm is associated with progressive motility.” Human reproduction (Oxford, England) vol. 34,7 (2019): 1186-1194. doi:10.1093/humrep/dez068 ↩︎
  12. Chang, Xinyue et al. “The Protective Effect of Trichilia catigua A. Juss. on DEHP-Induced Reproductive System Damage in Male Mice.” Frontiers in pharmacology vol. 13 832789. 3 Feb. 2022, doi:10.3389/fphar.2022.832789 ↩︎
  13. Dos Santos, Alice Hartmann, et al. “The exposure to Trichilia catigua (catuaba) crude extract impairs fertility of adult female rats but does not cause reproductive damage to male offspring.” Journal of ethnopharmacology 166 (2015): 86-91. ↩︎
  14. Lone, Sajad Ahmad, et al. “Epimedium elatum (morr & decne): a therapeutic medicinal plant from northwestern himalayas of India.” Plant and Human Health, Volume 1: Ethnobotany and Physiology (2018): 619-656. ↩︎
  15. Andersson, K-E. “PDE5 inhibitors – pharmacology and clinical applications 20 years after sildenafil discovery.” British journal of pharmacology vol. 175,13 (2018): 2554-2565. doi:10.1111/bph.14205 ↩︎
  16. Alwaal, Amjad, Raed Al-Mannie, and Serge Carrier. “Future prospects in the treatment of erectile dysfunction: focus on avanafil.” Drug design, development and therapy (2011): 435-443. ↩︎